• Centuries of slavery embedded in the U.S. Constitution enslaved millions of black people on Southern plantations, toiling in the fields from sun-up to sundown, suffering torture, punishment by hacking off limbs and the mass rape of thousands of black women slaves.

• Following post-Civil War “emancipation,” a Ku Klux Klan terror rampaged throughout the South and in some northern cities, keeping millions of black people in virtual slavery through laws barring equal rights, arresting and jailing thousands of black men right off the streets to become prisoner-slaves “rented out” to plantation owners, right up to World War II.

• Over 5,000 black workers and youth were lynched throughout the century following the Civil War to “keep Negroes in their place.”

• An untold number of Native Americans were wiped out in the 19th century by the U.S. Army’s genocide, including the infamous “trail of tears” that marched the Cherokees from the Carolinas to Western reservations, virtual concentration camps, thousands dying on the way, a “heritage” that has produced the most impoverished section of the U.S. ruling class, with a 90% unemployment rate.

• The horrific health conditions endured by the workers building the Panama Canal killed 25,000 from malaria, yellow fever, small pox, typhoid, dysentery and intestinal parasites.

• In the 1914 Ludlow Massacre, miners striking against Rockefeller’s Colorado Fuel & Iron Co. — having been evicted from company-owned houses — were living in tents which the National Guard then drenched with oil, setting the tents ablaze while miners and their families were asleep. When the miners ran from the tents, they were machine-gunned. Thirteen children and one woman were killed.

• In 1921, two militant left-wing workers active in strikes, Dante Sacco and Bartolomeo Vanzetti, were arrested for allegedly murdering two guards in a payroll robbery. Although another man later confessed to the murders, amid the Red Scare of the 1920s, these two poor workers were scapegoated as “terrorists” and, despite a 6-year international protest movement to free them, were executed in 1927.

• In unionizing drives of the 1920s and ’30s, scores of organizers were murdered throughout the South to counteract workers’ efforts to join unions.

• In 1932 in the infamous Scottsboro case, nine black youth were framed and condemned to death for the alleged rape of two white woman, one of whom later confessed to a jury that it had never taken place. Despite this evidence, the youth were found guilty in three trials. Although eventually charges were dropped for four, the rest were sentenced to from 75 years to death. Three served sentences, one was shot by a guard.

• The Ford Massacre: On March 7, 1932, unemployed Ford workers marched on the Dearborn, Michigan auto plant to with a plan to re-hire many of the 85,000 that Ford has laid off during the Great Depression. They were met with a rain of bullets from the Dearborn police and Henry Ford’s hired gunmen, killing four workers and wounding 60 others

• In 1934, four longshoremen were murdered by the cops in an attempt to break up the organizing drive of San Francisco dock workers.

• In 1937, the National Guard was ordered out virtually every week to break strikes in the great CIO organizing drives, tear-gassing, beating and maiming workers throughout the country.

• The Memorial Day Massacre. In 1937, Republic Steel company gunmen murdered ten strikers and wounded scores more as they peacefully picketed the steel company’s Youngstown, Ohio plant, in a CIO organizing effort.

• In 1941, hundreds of thousands of Japanese-Americans were summarily evicted from their neighborhoods and herded into “internment” concentration camps throughout the Western states where they spent the entire World War II, being cited as a “threat” to the national war effort by the Roosevelt Administration, following Japan’s attack on Pear Harbor.

• 1960s: Medgar Evers, Emmett Till, and scores of other black people are killed by racists; Freedom riders are beaten, killed; four schoolgirls are killed in Birmingham bombing; cops attack civil rights marchers in Selma, Alabama.

• NYC cop Gilligan fatally shoots black teenager in back, June 1964 (sparking Harlem Rebellion) followed by NYPD murders of a score of black and Latino workers and youth in following decades.

• Notorious LAPD precinct cops frame and jail innocent black and Latino workers and youth.

• Chicago cops torture many black men into “confessions” sending them onto death row before being exposed.

• New Orleans cops run riot for years, throwing black workers into jail, killing several fleeing city during Hurricane Katrina.

• U.S. prison population skyrockets from NY Rockefeller drug laws, California “three strikes” law, to 2.4 million — world’s highest — two-thirds imprisoned based on non-violent drug possession laws under Reagan and Clinton putting, 70% black and Latino.

• Congressional report concludes that for every 1.4% increase in unemployment — victims of recurring capitalist recessions/depressions —  30,000 workers will die in following five years (NY Times, 10/31/76).

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